Graphene is an interesting material that deserves a shift of attention in the design of nanocarriers. With only one atom thick, the last carbon allotrope being discovered is a strong material and a superior conductor of heat and electricity. Oxidation of graphene results in graphene oxide (GO) a hydrophilic, and so, water-soluble biocompatible compound. The presence of hydroxyl, epoxy and carboxyl groups on its surface enables its easy functionalization. Because its small size, low cost, high loading capacity, solubility in water, large surface, biocompatibility, optical proprieties, GO is a perfect candidate to treat several diseases, specially in the very promising fields of photothermal and photodynamic therapies (PTT and PDT).
Nitric oxide (NO) is a double edged-sword, which can have beneficial or deleterious effect, depending on the concentration. This short half live radical presenting reduced distance diffusion in cellular environment does not suffer multidrug resistance (MDR). We report herein a GO covalently bonded with a nitroaniline derivative nitric oxide photodonor  resulting in a bimodal nanoplatform that combine light-controlled NO release with photothermal proprieties, having intriguing prospect in nanomedicine.
 E. B. Caruso, S. Petralia, S. Conoci, S. Giuffrida and S. Sortino, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 480; S. Conoci, S. Petralia and S. Sortino, 2006, EP2051935A1/US20090191284.